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Over recent years there have been concomitant advances in the development of stratosphere-resolving numerical models, our understanding of stratosphere-troposphere interaction, and the extension of long-range forecasts to explicitly include the stratosphere. These advances are now allowing for new and improved capability in long-range prediction. We present an overview of this development and show how the inclusion of the stratosphere in forecast systems aids monthly, seasonal, and annual-to-decadal climate predictions and multidecadal projections. We end with an outlook towards the future and identify areas of improvement that could further benefit these rapidly evolving predictions.


Scaife, Adam A.;  Baldwin, Mark P.;  Butler, Amy H.;  Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.;  Domeisen, Daniela I., V;  Garfinkel, Chaim, I;  Hardiman, Steven C.;  Haynes, Peter;  Karpechko, Alexey Yu;  Lim, Eun-Pa;  Noguchi, Shunsuke;  Perlwitz, Judith;  Polvani, Lorenzo;  Richter, Jadwiga H.;  Scinocca, John;  Sigmond, Michael;  Shepherd, Theodore G.;  Son, Seok-Woo;  Thompson, David W. J.

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