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To extract chemical information reliably, we propose a new data processing method based both on the creation of information vectors and on a vector base change. The originality of this method is the combination of the different core XPS peaks, Auger and/or valence bands in a single vector. We show that the measurement of a sample upon its progressive chemical change, such as accumulation of the adventitious carbon, allows us to create a new vector basis using linear algebra and Principal Component Analysis. We demonstrate the application of this method using adventitious carbon films on Au foil utilizing Au 4f, C 1s and O 1s spectral envelopes. This method expands the possibilities of XPS measured chemical environment analysis and is an operator -unbiased solution for materials for which the reference XPS spectra are not available. In this demonstration, the emphasis is placed on identifying changes in a C 1s peak assumed to be adventitious carbon and highlight uncertainties associated with calibrating the binding energy scale using a simple peak model to identify a component C 1s assumed to be saturated hydrocarbon in origin.


Fernandez, Vincent;  Fairley, Neal;  Baltrusaitis, Jonas

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