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Abstract

Layered cathode materials are commonly used in lithium and sodium ion batteries, but they are prone to degradation under electrochemical cycling during battery operation. Here we report a new type of degradation mechanism through the electrochemically induced mechanical buckling and delamination cracking of intercalation layers in a P2 Na-0.7-Ni0.3Mn0.6Co0.1O2. (Na-NMC) cathode material. Kinks form in the delaminated layers due to severe local bending, and each kink consists of a vertical array of dislocations, resulting from an easy slip between transition metal oxide layers. In situ mechanical compression experiments directly reveal the kink formation due to strong mechanical anisotropy parallel and perpendicular to the intercalation layers in single-crystal Na-NMC. In situ electrochemical experiments indicate that kinks form during the desodiation process. Our results unveil a new mechanism of electrochemically induced mechanical degradation stemming from weak interlayer bonding in layered cathode materials. This work has broad implications for the mitigation of degradation associated with irreversible interlayer slip in layered cathode materials.

Authors

Li, Yanshuai;  Li, Xiaomei;  Du, Congcong;  Sun, Haiming;  Zhang, Yin;  Liu, Qiunan;  Yang, Tingting;  Zhao, Jun;  Delmas, Claude;  Harris, Stephen J.;  Chen, Hailong;  Huang, Qiao;  Tang, Yongfu;  Zhang, Liqiang;  Zhu, Ting;  Huang, Jianyu

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