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This paper contributes to a comprehensive perspective on the application of co-optimization in the energy sector - tracking the frontiers and trends in the field and identifying possible research gaps - based on a systematic literature review of 211 related studies. The use of co-optimization is addressed from a variety of perspectives by splitting the studies into ten key categories. Research has consistently shown that co-optimization approaches can be technically challenging and it is usually a data-intensive procedure. Overall, a set of techniques such as relaxation, decomposition and linear approaches have been proposed for reducing the inherent nonlinear model's complexities. The need to coordinate the necessary data from multiples actors might increase the complexity of the problem since security and confidentiality issues would also be put on the table. The evidence from our review seems to suggest a pertinent role for addressing real-case systems in future models instead of using theoretical test cases as considered by most studies. The identified challenges for future co-optimization models include (i) dealing with the treatment of uncertainties and (ii) take into account the trade-offs among modelling fidelity, spatial granularity and geographical coverage. Although there is also a growing body of literature that recognizes the importance of co-optimization focused on integrating supply and demand-side options, there has been little work in the development of co-optimization models for long-term decision-making, intending to recognize the impact of short-term variability of both demand and RES supply and well suited to systems with a high share of RES and under different demand flexibility conditions. The research results represent a further step towards the importance of developing more comprehensive approaches for integrating short-term constraints in future co-optimized planning models. The findings provide a solid evidence base for the multi-dimensionality of the co-optimization problems and contribute to a better understanding of how future operating and planning models might be affected under the use of such co-optimization approaches.


Dranka, Geremi Gilson;  Ferreira, Paula;  Vaz, A. Ismael F.

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