Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irrevocable chronic brain disorder featured by neuronal loss, microglial accumulation, and progressive cognitive impairment. The proper pathophysiology of this life-threatening disorder is not completely understood and no exact remedies have been found yet. Over the last few decades, research on AD has mainly highlighted pathomechanisms linked to a couple of the major pathological hallmarks, including extracellular senile plaques made of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) made of tau proteins. A beta can induce apoptosis, trigger an inflammatory response, and inhibit the synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus, which ultimately contributes to reducing cognitive functions and memory impairment. Recently, a third disease hallmark, the neuroinflammatory reaction that is mediated by cerebral innate immune cells, has become a spotlight in the current research area, assured by pre-clinical, clinical, and genetic investigations. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappa B), a cytokine producer, is significantly associated with physiological inflammatory proceedings and thus shows a promising candidate for inflammation-based AD therapy. Recent data reveal that phytochemicals, mainly polyphenol compounds, exhibit potential neuroprotective functions and these may be considered as a vital resource for discovering several drug candidates against AD. Interestingly, phytochemicals can easily interfere with the signaling pathway of NF-kappa B. This review represents the anti-neuroinflammatory potential of polyphenols as inhibitors of NF-kappa B to combat AD pathogenesis.
Anti-Neuroinflammatory Potential of Polyphenols by Inhibiting NF-kappa B to Halt Alzheimer's Disease
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