In this work, a first study on kinetics and thermodynamics of thermal decomposition for synthesis of doped LiMn(2)O(4)nanoparticles is presented. The effect of Mg doping concentration on thermal decomposition of synthesis precursors, prepared by ultrasound-assisted Pechini-type sol-gel process, and its significance on nucleation and growth of Mg-doped LiMn(2)O(4)nanoparticles was studied through a method based on separation of multistage processes in single-stage reactions by deconvolution and transition state theory. Four zones of thermal decomposition were identified: Dehydration, polymeric matrix decomposition, carbonate decomposition and spinel formation, and spinel decomposition. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis focused on the second zone. First-order Avrami-Erofeev equation was selected as reaction model representing the polymer matrix thermal decomposition. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters revealed that Mg doping causes an increase in thermal inertia on conversion rate, and CO(2)desorption was the limiting step for formation of thermodynamically stable spinel phases. Based on thermogravimetry experiments and the effect of Mg on thermal decomposition, an optimal two-stage heat treatment was determined for preparation of LiMgxMn2-xO4(x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10) nanocrystalline powders as promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Crystalline structure, morphology, and stoichiometry of synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, and AAS, respectively.
Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Synthesis of Mg-Doped LiMn(2)O(4)Nanoparticles
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