Urban microclimate peculiarities in two Arctic cities in northwestern Russia-Kirovsk (67.62 degrees N, 33.67 degrees E) and Apatity (67.57 degrees N, 33.38 degrees E)-were investigated by using mobile temperature records. The experiment was carried out in and around Apatity and Kirovsk in February 2014 and December 2016. The DS18B20 digital thermometer was installed on the roof of a car (height: approximately 1.2 m) to measure and record temperature variations automatically. In addition to the digital thermometer, the car was also equipped with an onboard global positioning system, allowing every temperature measurement to be referenced with an altitude and a latitude/longitude position. The possibility of urban heat island formation in these polar cities, above the Arctic Circle, was studied. Our analysis indicated that on 11 February 2014, the temperature varied in accordance with the background environmental lapse rate (-0.0045 degrees C m(-1)), and nearly corresponded to it (-0.0165 degrees C m(-1)) on 12 February 2014. On 6 December 2016, a strong local temperature inversion with a positive value of 0.032 degrees C m(-1) was detected, seemingly caused by the formation of a cold air pool in the valley near Kirovsk. It was found that the temperature variations within and outside these cities are strongly influenced by local topographic effects and the physical conditions of the atmospheric boundary layer.
Urban Heat Island Investigations in Arctic Cities of Northwestern Russia
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