Background: Self-esteem is defined as feelings of one's personal self-worth. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships among gender, education level, handedness and self-esteem score in African university students.Methods: A total of 345 Nigerian university students were involved in the study. Participants were 177 men and 168 women who were 17-28 years of age. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale was used to get their individual self-esteem points. Data were analyzed by applying student's t-test (independent sample test) and one way ANOVA tests in SPSS for Windows (version 18) statistical program.Results: Self-esteem score was higher in left-handed students than in right-handed students (t=3.58, p<0.001). There are no statistical differences in self-esteem score by sex, age, and weight and education level. Their departments in university had no significant effect on self-esteem scores.Conclusion: These results showed that the higher self-esteem scores in left-handed university students in the present study may be associated with higher sports performance in the left-handed persons.