Apple pomace is a by-product of apple processing industries with low value and thus frequent disposal, although with valuable compounds. Acidified hot water extraction has been suggested as a clean, feasible, and easy approach for the recovery of polyphenols. This type of extraction allowed us to obtain 296 g of extract per kg of dry apple pomace, including 3.3 g of polyphenols and 281 g of carbohydrates. Ultrafiltration and solid-phase extraction using C18 cartridges of the hot water extract suggested that, in addition to the apple native polyphenols detected by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector and mass spectrometry UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn, polyphenols could also be present as complexes with carbohydrates. For the water-soluble polyphenols, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were observed by inhibiting chemically generated hydroxyl radicals (OH center dot) and nitrogen monoxide radicals (NO center dot) produced in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The water-soluble polyphenols, when incorporated into yogurt formulations, were not affected by fermentation and improved the antioxidant properties of the final product. This in vitro research paves the way for agro-food industries to achieve more diversified and sustainable solutions towards their main by-products.
Apple Pomace Extract as a Sustainable Food Ingredient
Fernandes, Pedro A. R.; Ferreira, Sonia S.; Bastos, Rita; Ferreira, Isabel; Cruz, Maria T.; Pinto, Antonio; Coelho, Elisabete; Passos, Claudia P.; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Cardoso, Susana M.; Wessel, Dulcineia F.
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