Abstract

Purpose The face-centered cubic structured single-phase FeCoNiCrMn high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were prepared to study the friction and wear behavior of HEAs under MoS2-oil lubrication. Design/methodology/approach FeCoNiCrMn alloys were subjected to ball-on-disc reciprocating sliding against the GCr15 ball. L-25(5(6)) orthogonal wear tests were designed for velocity V-rel (4.167-20.833 mm/s), load F-N (10-50 N), temperature T (RT-140 degrees C) and time t (5-20 min). Based on orthogonal test results, multivariate repeated measures ANOVA was performed, and further comparative experiments were conducted for V-rel, F-N and T. Energy dispersive spectrometer and scanning electron microscope were applied to characterize the surface morphology of wear scar and its element distribution. Findings V-rel, F-N and t exerted the most significant influence (p < 0.01) on the average friction coefficient f. V-rel and F-N were identified as the momentous effect (p < 0.01) on wear volume Delta V. T (>= 50 degrees C) had positive correlation with f and Delta V, and both V-rel and F-N correlated negatively with f. The dominant abrasive wear was attributed to the large hardness difference of the friction pair. Fatigue wear and delamination wear were experienced at higher speeds (V-rel >= 12.5 mm/s) and loading levels (F-N >= 40 N). Elevated temperature weakens the lubrication effect of MoS2-oil and the mechanical properties of FeCoNiCrMn matrix, intensifying abrasive wear. Originality/value This study is expected to provide references for exploration on the wear behavior of single-phase HEAs under complex working conditions with lubrication and hence will help develop the application of HEAs in practical engineering. Peer review The peer review history for this article is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ILT-08-2019-0303.


Authors

Wang, Hao;  Ren, Kai;  Xie, Jin;  Zhang, Chen;  Tang, Wencheng

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  • 1 reviewer
  • pre-publication peer review (FINAL ROUND)
    Decision Letter
    2019/10/22

    22-Oct-2019

    Dear Wang, Hao; Ren, Kai; Xie, Jin; Zhang, Chen; Tang, Wencheng

    It is a pleasure to accept your manuscript ilt-08-2019-0303.R1, entitled "Friction and wear behavior of single-phase high-entropy alloy FeCoNiCrMn under MoS2-oil lubrication" in its current form for publication in Industrial Lubrication and Tribology. Please note, no further changes can be made to your manuscript.

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    Editor, Industrial Lubrication and Tribology
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    Decision letter by
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    Reviewer report
    2019/10/15

    The authors reply all questions, the revison portion is marked and reasonable. Therefore the reviewer recommends 'accept as it is'.

    Reviewed by
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    Author Response
    2019/10/14

    We appreciate all the comments reviewers have made, and detailed responses to these comments have been upload as the file 'Responses to reviewers'.



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  • pre-publication peer review (ROUND 1)
    Decision Letter
    2019/08/21

    21-Aug-2019

    Dear Prof. Tang:

    Manuscript ID ilt-08-2019-0303 entitled "Friction and wear behavior of single-phase high-entropy alloy FeCoNiCrMn under MoS2-oil lubrication" which you submitted to the Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, has been reviewed. The comments of the reviewer(s) are included at the bottom of this letter.

    The reviewer(s) have recommended publication, but also suggest some revisions to your manuscript. Therefore, I invite you to respond to the reviewer(s)' comments and revise your manuscript.

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    Once again, thank you for submitting your manuscript to the Industrial Lubrication and Tribology and I look forward to receiving your revision.

    Sincerely,
    Prof. Carsten Gachot
    Editor, Industrial Lubrication and Tribology
    carsten.gachot@tuwien.ac.at

    Reviewer(s)' Comments to Author:
    Reviewer: 1

    Comments to the Author
    1) The test time is too short to get the real steady state.
    2) The specific contact pressure and some material properties, such as yield strength should be added.
    3) Could the authors precise how the how the wear volume is obtained? What kind of treatment is done on the measurement?
    4) Could the authors give some explanation the reduction of friction coefficient in Fig. 4a?
    5) In Fig. 4d, wear volume increases to a maximum then decreases, why?
    6) Optical images of the worn surface are suggested, since the tribo-film might be observed through the comparison.

    Reviewer: 2

    Comments to the Author
    (There are no comments.)

    Reviewer: 3

    Comments to the Author
    High entropy alloys are prepared and the influence of load, velocity and temperature on friction and wear behaviors of high entropy alloys is investigated under oil lubrication in this work. For the present work, there are some questions respect to the tests and analysis.
    1) The influence of the friction conditions including five levels and four factors on the friction and wear behaviors of high entropy alloy is investigated in this paper, why is L25, not L16?
    2) Please give the size and contents of MoS2 particles and so on in oil lubrication and ball-on-disc wear tests.
    3) The authors do not report roughness of the flat and others, and how to obtain the surface topography of the friction pair.
    4) Figures 3 and 4 show coefficient of friction of high entropy alloys under different loads and velocities, however, the authors did not explain and discuss the tribological mechanism of high entropy alloys.
    5) The authors explain that “temperature rise brings about drop of viscosity of lubricant and influence coefficient of friction”, it maybe incorrect, please try to analyze the influence of MoS2 on friction behaviors of high entropy alloys.
    6) Please make Figure 6 (d), (e), (f) clear.
    7) Please clarify the reason why the wear surface looks smooth with the increase of velocity and load.
    8) Coefficient of friction usually increases with increase of velocity according to Stribeck curve, why f of high entropy alloys decreases with the increase of Velocity?
    9) The authors said “abrasive wear is aggravated by the temperature rise”, please explain the influence of temperature on the abrasive wear of alloys.
    10) The present paper shows the friction properties of high entropy alloys, what is advantage of high entropy alloys as the tribological materials, what is difference between high entropy alloys and metal alloys?
    Reviewer: 1

    Comments:
    1) The test time is too short to get the real steady state.
    2) The specific contact pressure and some material properties, such as yield strength should be added.
    3) Could the authors precise how the how the wear volume is obtained? What kind of treatment is done on the measurement?
    4) Could the authors give some explanation the reduction of friction coefficient in Fig. 4a?
    5) In Fig. 4d, wear volume increases to a maximum then decreases, why?
    6) Optical images of the worn surface are suggested, since the tribo-film might be observed through the comparison.

    Additional Questions:
    Originality: Does the paper contain new and significant information adequate to justify publication?: yes

    Relationship to Literature: Does the paper demonstrate an adequate understanding of the relevant literature in the field and cite an appropriate range of literature sources? Is any signficant work ignored?: yes

    Methodology: Is the paper's argument built on an appropriate base of theory, concepts, or other ideas? Has the research or equivalent intellectual work on which the paper is based been well designed? Are the methods employed appropriate?: yes

    Results: Are results presented clearly and analysed appropriately? Do the conclusions adequately tie together the other elements of the paper?: yes

    Practicality and/or Research implications: Does the paper identify clearly any implications for practice and/or further research? Are these implications consistent withthe findings and conclusions of the paper?: yes

    Quality of Communication: Does the paper clearly express its case, measured against the technical language of the field and the expected knowledge of the journal's readership? Has attention been paid to the clarity of expression and readability, such as sentence structure, jargon use, acronyms, etc.: yes

    Reproducible Research: If appropriate, is sufficient information, potentially including data and software, provided to reproduce the results and are the corresponding datasets formally cited?:

    This journal is participating in Publons Transparent Peer Review. By reviewing for this journal, you agree that your finished report, along with the author’s responses and the Editor’s decision letter, will be linked to from the published article to where they appear on Publons, if the paper is accepted. If you have any concerns about participating in the Transparent Peer Review pilot, please reach out to the journal’s Editorial office. Please indicate below, whether you would like your name to appear with your report on Publons by indicating yes or no: No, I would not like my name to appear with my report on Publons

    Reviewer: 2

    Comments:
    (There are no comments.)

    Additional Questions:
    Originality: Does the paper contain new and significant information adequate to justify publication?: yes

    Relationship to Literature: Does the paper demonstrate an adequate understanding of the relevant literature in the field and cite an appropriate range of literature sources? Is any signficant work ignored?: yes

    Methodology: Is the paper's argument built on an appropriate base of theory, concepts, or other ideas? Has the research or equivalent intellectual work on which the paper is based been well designed? Are the methods employed appropriate?: yes

    Results: Are results presented clearly and analysed appropriately? Do the conclusions adequately tie together the other elements of the paper?: yes

    Practicality and/or Research implications: Does the paper identify clearly any implications for practice and/or further research? Are these implications consistent withthe findings and conclusions of the paper?: yes

    Quality of Communication: Does the paper clearly express its case, measured against the technical language of the field and the expected knowledge of the journal's readership? Has attention been paid to the clarity of expression and readability, such as sentence structure, jargon use, acronyms, etc.: yes

    Reproducible Research: If appropriate, is sufficient information, potentially including data and software, provided to reproduce the results and are the corresponding datasets formally cited?:

    This journal is participating in Publons Transparent Peer Review. By reviewing for this journal, you agree that your finished report, along with the author’s responses and the Editor’s decision letter, will be linked to from the published article to where they appear on Publons, if the paper is accepted. If you have any concerns about participating in the Transparent Peer Review pilot, please reach out to the journal’s Editorial office. Please indicate below, whether you would like your name to appear with your report on Publons by indicating yes or no: Yes, I would like my name to appear with my report on Publons

    Reviewer: 3

    Comments:
    High entropy alloys are prepared and the influence of load, velocity and temperature on friction and wear behaviors of high entropy alloys is investigated under oil lubrication in this work. For the present work, there are some questions respect to the tests and analysis.
    1) The influence of the friction conditions including five levels and four factors on the friction and wear behaviors of high entropy alloy is investigated in this paper, why is L25, not L16?
    2) Please give the size and contents of MoS2 particles and so on in oil lubrication and ball-on-disc wear tests.
    3) The authors do not report roughness of the flat and others, and how to obtain the surface topography of the friction pair.
    4) Figures 3 and 4 show coefficient of friction of high entropy alloys under different loads and velocities, however, the authors did not explain and discuss the tribological mechanism of high entropy alloys.
    5) The authors explain that “temperature rise brings about drop of viscosity of lubricant and influence coefficient of friction”, it maybe incorrect, please try to analyze the influence of MoS2 on friction behaviors of high entropy alloys.
    6) Please make Figure 6 (d), (e), (f) clear.
    7) Please clarify the reason why the wear surface looks smooth with the increase of velocity and load.
    8) Coefficient of friction usually increases with increase of velocity according to Stribeck curve, why f of high entropy alloys decreases with the increase of Velocity?
    9) The authors said “abrasive wear is aggravated by the temperature rise”, please explain the influence of temperature on the abrasive wear of alloys.
    10) The present paper shows the friction properties of high entropy alloys, what is advantage of high entropy alloys as the tribological materials, what is difference between high entropy alloys and metal alloys?

    Additional Questions:
    Originality: Does the paper contain new and significant information adequate to justify publication?: yes

    Relationship to Literature: Does the paper demonstrate an adequate understanding of the relevant literature in the field and cite an appropriate range of literature sources? Is any signficant work ignored?: yes

    Methodology: Is the paper's argument built on an appropriate base of theory, concepts, or other ideas? Has the research or equivalent intellectual work on which the paper is based been well designed? Are the methods employed appropriate?: no

    Results: Are results presented clearly and analysed appropriately? Do the conclusions adequately tie together the other elements of the paper?: no

    Practicality and/or Research implications: Does the paper identify clearly any implications for practice and/or further research? Are these implications consistent withthe findings and conclusions of the paper?: no

    Quality of Communication: Does the paper clearly express its case, measured against the technical language of the field and the expected knowledge of the journal's readership? Has attention been paid to the clarity of expression and readability, such as sentence structure, jargon use, acronyms, etc.: no

    Reproducible Research: If appropriate, is sufficient information, potentially including data and software, provided to reproduce the results and are the corresponding datasets formally cited?:

    This journal is participating in Publons Transparent Peer Review. By reviewing for this journal, you agree that your finished report, along with the author’s responses and the Editor’s decision letter, will be linked to from the published article to where they appear on Publons, if the paper is accepted. If you have any concerns about participating in the Transparent Peer Review pilot, please reach out to the journal’s Editorial office. Please indicate below, whether you would like your name to appear with your report on Publons by indicating yes or no: Yes, I would like my name to appear with my report on Publons

    Decision letter by
    Cite this decision letter
    Reviewer report
    2019/08/21

    High entropy alloys are prepared and the influence of load, velocity and temperature on friction and wear behaviors of high entropy alloys is investigated under oil lubrication in this work. For the present work, there are some questions respect to the tests and analysis.
    1) The influence of the friction conditions including five levels and four factors on the friction and wear behaviors of high entropy alloy is investigated in this paper, why is L25, not L16?
    2) Please give the size and contents of MoS2 particles and so on in oil lubrication and ball-on-disc wear tests.
    3) The authors do not report roughness of the flat and others, and how to obtain the surface topography of the friction pair.
    4) Figures 3 and 4 show coefficient of friction of high entropy alloys under different loads and velocities, however, the authors did not explain and discuss the tribological mechanism of high entropy alloys.
    5) The authors explain that “temperature rise brings about drop of viscosity of lubricant and influence coefficient of friction”, it maybe incorrect, please try to analyze the influence of MoS2 on friction behaviors of high entropy alloys.
    6) Please make Figure 6 (d), (e), (f) clear.
    7) Please clarify the reason why the wear surface looks smooth with the increase of velocity and load.
    8) Coefficient of friction usually increases with increase of velocity according to Stribeck curve, why f of high entropy alloys decreases with the increase of Velocity?
    9) The authors said “abrasive wear is aggravated by the temperature rise”, please explain the influence of temperature on the abrasive wear of alloys.
    10) The present paper shows the friction properties of high entropy alloys, what is advantage of high entropy alloys as the tribological materials, what is difference between high entropy alloys and metal alloys?

    Reviewed by
    Cite this review
    Reviewer report
    2019/08/17

    This reviewer report was submitted to the journal as an attached file and cannot be displayed at this time.

    Reviewed by
    Cite this review
    Reviewer report
    2019/08/12

    1) The test time is too short to get the real steady state.
    2) The specific contact pressure and some material properties, such as yield strength should be added.
    3) Could the authors precise how the how the wear volume is obtained? What kind of treatment is done on the measurement?
    4) Could the authors give some explanation the reduction of friction coefficient in Fig. 4a?
    5) In Fig. 4d, wear volume increases to a maximum then decreases, why?
    6) Optical images of the worn surface are suggested, since the tribo-film might be observed through the comparison.

    Reviewed by
    Cite this review
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