Purpose This paper aims to study frictional characteristics of thin-walled tubes in the liquid impact forming (LIF) process. Design/methodology/approach LIF experiments under various impacting velocities were performed on SUS304 stainless steel tubes with various guiding lengths on a custom-designed measurement system to investigate the effects of impacting velocity and guiding length on the coefficient of friction (COF) in the guiding zone. Findings The results indicate that the COF changes dynamically in the guiding zone and decreases with the deformation process. The reduction range of the COF is wider in LIF than in both the conventional and pulsating hydroforming (THF), which may be contributed to the impacting velocities in a short time. Moreover, the COF decreases faster in the first half of the LIF process than in the second half. Under different impacting velocities and guiding lengths, the decreasing rate of the COF in the first half is more sensitive and obvious than that in the second half. Originality/value A method for determining the COF in the guiding zone in LIF is proposed and the frictional characteristics in LIF are studied. Comparing the COF of tubes in conventional THF, pulsating THF and the LIF process is valuable for improving and predicting the tubular formability in various hydraulic environments for industrial production.


Ma, Jianping;  Yang, Lianfa;  He, Yulin;  Guo, Jian

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  • pre-publication peer review (FINAL ROUND)
    Decision Letter


    Dear Ma, Jianping; Yang, Lianfa; He, Yulin; Guo, Jian

    It is a pleasure to accept your manuscript ilt-07-2019-0269.R1, entitled "Frictional characteristics of thin-walled tubes in liquid impact forming" in its current form for publication in Industrial Lubrication and Tribology. Please note, no further changes can be made to your manuscript.

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    Author Response

    Dear Reviewer: 1,

    We feel very much honored to get the reviewer’s expert comments to the manuscript (ID: ilt-07-2019-0269). We have addressed all of the reviewer queries and all the changes are highlighted by using pink text in present revised version.

    The reviewer is an acknowledged expert in industrial lubrication and tribology, and his/her comments are constructive and beneficial. We have learned a lot and got inspired from the expert advice in the comments for our forthcoming research work in frictional characteristics. Although some shortcomings exist in the present study, after a major revision based on the reviewers' comments, the manuscript is improved greatly. That should be attributed to the high quality comments of the reviewer.

    The attached are our sincere responses to the reviewer.


    The authors

    October 15, 2019.

    Reviewer: 1 Following points need to be considered: - Please specify the chemical composition of the steel used. - Please provide mean values and error bars for the material data/properties. - The note in Figure 4 is misleading. It looks like as it would have been already published. Please clarify.

    1. Please specify the chemical composition of the steel used. Re: The specific chemical composition of the steel used are displayed in Table Ⅱ, and Table Ⅱ is added in sub-section “2.1 Base materials” in present revised version.
    2. Please provide mean values and error bars for the material data/properties. Re: The mean values and error bars for the material data/properties are added in Table Ⅰ in sub-section “2.1 Base materials” in present revised version.
    3. The note in Figure 4 is misleading. It looks like as it would have been already published. Please clarify. Re: We are very sorry for the confusion of the note in Figure 4. Considering the Reviewer’s suggestion, we have modified the note in Figure 4 in present revised version. We promise that Figure 4 has not been published elsewhere. It may be similar to the curve in the previous paper published by our research group. This published paper is “Yang, L.F., Wu, C.L. and He, Y.L. (2016), Dynamic frictional characteristics for the pulsating hydroforming of tubes, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 86 No. 1−4, pp. 347−357”. In this published paper, the dynamic frictional characteristics of the tubular guiding zone under different pulsating amplitudes and frequencies are studied and the coefficient of friction (COF) curves are shown in Figure 10 and Figure 13. However, this present manuscript mainly studies the frictional characteristics under the liquid impact forming (LIF). Furthermore, in order to further compare the COF of tubular guiding zone in present LIF, conventional THF and pulsating THF process, the COF curves in conventional THF and pulsating THF in Figure 4(a) were cited in this manuscript. The description of this reference is highlighted in the second paragraph in sub-section “4.1 Effect of impacting velocity on COF” in present revised version. Thus, it looks like as it would have been already published.

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  • pre-publication peer review (ROUND 1)
    Decision Letter


    Dear Mr. Yang:

    Manuscript ID ilt-07-2019-0269 entitled "Frictional characteristics of thin-walled tubes in liquid impact forming" which you submitted to the Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, has been reviewed. The comments of the reviewer(s) are included at the bottom of this letter.

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    Once again, thank you for submitting your manuscript to the Industrial Lubrication and Tribology and I look forward to receiving your revision.

    Sincerely, Prof. Carsten Gachot Editor, Industrial Lubrication and Tribology carsten.gachot@tuwien.ac.at

    Reviewer(s)' Comments to Author: Reviewer: 1

    Comments to the Author (There are no comments.) Reviewer: 1

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