Abstract

Purpose Upgraded water and better sanitation are essential for human health, but it is still a challenge to get admittance to these facilities and the concerns of public health becomes most victims. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the socioeconomic and demographic forecaster linked with admittance to safer water and upgraded sanitation facilities in Rwanda. The study uses the cross-sectional data from the 2014 to 2015 Rwanda Demographic Health Survey and uses linear generalized models for the analysis. Design/methodology/approach The logit and probit regressions were used to analyze whether or not any forecaster variables influenced the predicted variable. Findings The findings showed that the households with the highest education background were 11.55 times more probable to have admittance to upgraded water sources compared to those who had none level of education. Likewise, the respondents with secondary and higher education were, respectively, 9.55 times and 4.09 times more probable to have admittance to upgraded latrine facilities. The authors found the increase of household size as significantly associated with admittance to the upgraded water source and latrine facilities compared to those families with fewer household members. The results also found that wealthier households had a larger odds ratio significance in getting admittance to upgraded water sources and sanitation facilities compared to poorer households. The study results found the greatest gap in access to upgraded water sources and sanitation facilities in rural areas compared to urban areas.Research limitations/implications - The implications of the study results call for water policy formulation and implementation in Rwanda, as well as generally for other developing countries. Originality/value In Rwanda, this is the first study that empirically inspected the relationship between socioeconomic and demographic forecasters on admittance to upgraded water and sanitation facilities. Peer review The peer review history for this article is available at: https//publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-07-2019-0452


Authors

Bikorimana, Gerard;  Sun Shengmin

Publons users who've claimed - I am an author
Contributors on Publons
  • 1 author
  • 1 reviewer
  • pre-publication peer review (FINAL ROUND)
    Decision Letter
    2019/11/15

    15-Nov-2019

    Dear BIKORIMANA, Gerard; Shengmin, Sun

    It is a pleasure to accept your manuscript IJSE-07-2019-0452.R1, entitled "Socioeconomic and Demographic Forecasters of Upgraded Water and Sanitation facilities Admittance in Rwanda" in its current form for publication in International Journal of Social Economics. Please note, no further changes can be made to your manuscript.

    Please go to your Author Centre at https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ijsec (Manuscripts with Decisions for the submitting author or Manuscripts I have co-authored for all listed co-authors) to complete the Copyright Transfer Agreement form (CTA). We cannot publish your paper without this.

    All authors are requested to complete the form and to input their full contact details. If any of the contact information is incorrect you can update it by clicking on your name at the top right of the screen. Please note that this must be done prior to you submitting your CTA.

    If you have an ORCID please check your account details to ensure that your ORCID is validated.

    By publishing in this journal your work will benefit from Emerald EarlyCite. As soon as your CTA is completed your manuscript will pass to Emerald’s Content Management department and be processed for EarlyCite publication. EarlyCite is the author proofed, typeset version of record, fully citable by DOI. The EarlyCite article sits outside of a journal issue and is paginated in isolation. The EarlyCite article will be collated into a journal issue according to the journals’ publication schedule.

    FOR OPEN ACCESS AUTHORS: Please note if you have indicated that you would like to publish your article as Open Access via Emerald’s Gold Open Access route, you are required to complete a Creative Commons Attribution Licence - CCBY 4.0 (in place of the standard copyright assignment form referenced above). You will receive a follow up email within the next 30 days with a link to the CCBY licence and information regarding payment of the Article Processing Charge. If you have indicated that you might be eligible for a prepaid APC voucher, you will also be informed at this point if a voucher is available to you (for more information on APC vouchers please see http://www.emeraldpublishing.com/oapartnerships

    Thank you for your contribution. On behalf of the Editors of International Journal of Social Economics, we look forward to your continued contributions to the Journal.

    Sincerely,
    Dr. Stefan Mann
    Editor, International Journal of Social Economics
    stefan.mann@agroscope.admin.ch

    Decision letter by
    Cite this decision letter
    Reviewer report
    2019/11/14

    No comment after incorporation of suggested changes

    Reviewed by
    Cite this review
    Author Response
    2019/11/06

    Response to reviewers’ comments

    Thank you very much for giving us this opportunity to submit a revised version of our manuscript titled “Socioeconomic and Demographic Forecasters of Upgraded Water and Sanitation Facilities admittance in Rwanda” to the International Journal of Social Economics. We appreciate the time and effort that the editor and the reviewers have committed to offering your valuable feedback on our manuscript. We are very much thankful to the reviewers for their insightful and constructive comments. Each comment has been carefully taken into consideration and responded. We have highlighted in red color the changes within the manuscript.
    Response to Reviewer #1 Comments

    Comment: The comment was about strengthening the theoretical backbone of the manuscript by clarifying the close correlation
    between education, wealth, and admittance on potable water and sanitation.

    Reply: The explanation of why the close correlation between education, wealth and admittance on potable water and sanitation exist
    has been given. (See page 4)

    Response to Reviewer #2 Comments

    Comment: In the logistic regression model, the authors provide a very general model structure for readers. The model variables must
    be in a specific structure with proper symbols. For example- X1, X2...X7 must be replaced by explanatory variables.

    Text citation is missing in some subsection of literature review parts. For example- page number-2 paragraph-2.

    Reply: As suggested, the model has been clarified by replacing the symbols with its corresponding variables, and now it is well stated
    and explained (see page 7).
    The text citation in the paper has been well checked, and the missing has been added. The paper is now well referenced.



    Cite this author response
  • pre-publication peer review (ROUND 1)
    Decision Letter
    2019/10/17

    17-Oct-2019

    Dear Mr. BIKORIMANA:

    Manuscript ID IJSE-07-2019-0452 entitled "Socioeconomic and Demographic Forecasters of Upgraded Water and Sanitary Facility Admittance in Rwanda" which you submitted to the International Journal of Social Economics, has been reviewed. The comments of the reviewer are included at the bottom of this letter.

    While I had found two colleagues willing to review your manuscript, one of them, working at the World Bank, disappeared during the time of revision, and I was unable to get into contact with him. I therefore went into your manuscript myself.

    While the remaining reviewer emphasizes some technical and methodological weaknesses, I would like a stronger theoretical backbone of the manuscript. Your merit is that you show how both education and wealth influence access to sanitary facilities. But could you explain why these two correlkations exist (which is probably easier for wealth than for education)?

    To revise your manuscript, log into https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ijsec and enter your Author Centre, where you will find your manuscript title listed under "Manuscripts with Decisions." Under "Actions," click on "Create a Revision." Your manuscript number has been appended to denote a revision.

    You will be unable to make your revisions on the originally submitted version of the manuscript. Instead, revise your manuscript using a word processing program and save it on your computer. Please also highlight the changes to your manuscript within the document by using the track changes mode in MS Word or by using bold or coloured text.

    Once the revised manuscript is prepared, you can upload it and submit it through your Author Centre. The deadline for uploading a revised manuscript is 17-Nov-2019 from receiving this email. If it is not possible for you to resubmit your revision within this timeframe, we may have to consider your paper as a new submission.

    When submitting your revised manuscript, you will be able to respond to the comments made by the reviewer(s) in the space provided. You can use this space to document any changes you make to the original manuscript. In order to expedite the processing of the revised manuscript, please be as specific as possible in your response to the reviewer(s).

    IMPORTANT: Your original files are available to you when you upload your revised manuscript. Please delete any redundant files before completing the submission.

    Please note that Emerald requires you to clear permission to re-use any material not created by you. If there are permissions outstanding, please send these to Emerald as soon as possible. Emerald is unable to publish your paper with permissions outstanding.

    Once again, thank you for submitting your manuscript to the International Journal of Social Economics and I look forward to receiving your revision.

    Sincerely,
    Dr. Stefan Mann
    Editor, International Journal of Social Economics
    stefan.mann@agroscope.admin.ch

    Reviewer(s)' Comments to Author:
    Reviewer: 1

    Recommendation: Minor Revision

    Comments:
    In logistic regression model, authors provide very general model structure for readers. the model variables must be in specific structure with proper symbols. For example- X1,X2...X7 must be replaced by explanatory variables.
    text citation is missing in some subsection of literature review parts. For example- page number-2 paragraph-2.

    Additional Questions:
    Originality: Does the paper contain new and significant information adequate to justify publication?: Yes, this paper is totally new and significant for Rwanda policy makers.

    Relationship to Literature: Does the paper demonstrate an adequate understanding of the relevant literature in the field and cite an appropriate range of literature sources? Is any significant work ignored?: Literature review section is well demonstrated but text citation is missing in some subsection of literature review parts. For example- page number-2 paragraph-2.

    Methodology: Is the paper's argument built on an appropriate base of theory, concepts, or other ideas? Has the research or equivalent intellectual work on which the paper is based been well designed? Are the methods employed appropriate?: yes, methods are appropriate here to use. But in logistic regression model, authors provide very general model structure for readers. the model variables must be in specific structure with proper symbols. For example- X1,X2...X7

    Results: Are results presented clearly and analysed appropriately? Do the conclusions adequately tie together the other elements of the paper?: Yes results are clear and appropriate.

    Implications for research, practice and/or society: Does the paper identify clearly any implications for research, practice and/or society? Does the paper bridge the gap between theory and practice? How can the research be used in practice (economic and commercial impact), in teaching, to influence public policy, in research (contributing to the body of knowledge)? What is the impact upon society (influencing public attitudes, affecting quality of life)? Are these implications consistent with the findings and conclusions of the paper?: Authors should provide implication part in sub-headings.

    Quality of Communication: Does the paper clearly express its case, measured against the technical language of the field and the expected knowledge of the journal's readership? Has attention been paid to the clarity of expression and readability, such as sentence structure, jargon use, acronyms, etc.: accepted and well organized

    Reproducible Research: If appropriate, is sufficient information, potentially including data and software, provided to reproduce the results and are the corresponding datasets formally cited?:

    This journal is participating in Publons Transparent Peer Review. By reviewing for this journal, you agree that your finished report, along with the author’s responses and the Editor’s decision letter, will be linked to from the published article to where they appear on Publons, if the paper is accepted. If you have any concerns about participating in the Transparent Peer Review pilot, please reach out to the journal’s Editorial office. Please indicate below, whether you would like your name to appear with your report on Publons by indicating yes or no.: No, I would not like my name to appear with my report on Publons

    Decision letter by
    Cite this decision letter
    Reviewer report
    2019/09/09

    In logistic regression model, authors provide very general model structure for readers. the model variables must be in specific structure with proper symbols. For example- X1,X2...X7 must be replaced by explanatory variables.
    text citation is missing in some subsection of literature review parts. For example- page number-2 paragraph-2.

    Reviewed by
    Cite this review
All peer review content displayed here is covered by a Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license.